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Transcription And Translation Analysis
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Transcription is when DNA is copied into an RNA sequence through a series of processes. This occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes involving different factors. Prokaryotes do not have nucleus and contains only one RNA polymerase which binds to a sigma factor located at the -35 region to recognize the promoter. Once the DNA unwinds, the sigma factor falls off and DNA is transcribed and continues until the enzyme encounters a terminator signal at the stop site. The template and newly made RNA strand is released.

Eukaryotes however, use general transcription factors and contain RNA polymerase I, II and III. These accessory proteins attach to the promoter by RNA polymerase II to position the polymerase and pry apart the double helix using the energy of ATP hydrolysis which exposes nucleotides for complementary base-pairing and launches the polymerase to begin transcribing. The promoter contains a DNA sequence called the TATA box which is adenine and thymine rich. RNA polymerase II phosphorylates to begin elongation. TFIIH, a kinase protein releases the RNA polymerase II by adding phosphates to the tail.

Next, we have RNA processing which occurs as RNA is still being transcribed. Before RNA can exit the nucleus, 3 events occur. First, the 5’ end is capped with 7-methylguanosine. The next step is splicing, when introns, the noncoding sequence, are removed. Introns form a lariat structure which eventually degrades. This process is carried out by RNA molecules, not proteins. RNA is cleaved by snRNPS, small nuclear ribonucleoproteins at the intron-exon borders and covalently links the exons, coding regions, together and RNA will be ready to exit the nucleus.

Translation is a process of decoding RNA into proteins. Since bacteria contain ribosomes, prokaryotes consist of binding sequences instead of the 5’ cap. Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic which encode several proteins. The release factors bind to STOP codons that alter the peptidyl transferase which catalyzes and adds water instead of amino acids to the P-site. The reaction will free the carboxyl end and the chain will be released into the cytosol.

Initiation factors bind to the small subunit in eukaryotes. The 5’ cap is signaled at the 5’ end of the mRNA to enter the ribosome. The initiator tRNA comes in with the start codon, AUG which codes for methionine and binds at the P-site which stands for the peptidyl tRNA synthetase. Another tRNA comes in with an amino acid and binds to the A site, aminoacyl synthetase. A peptide bond is formed between the amino acid and the large ribosomal subunit is shift to the right. The small subunit follows and shifts to the right as well. The initiator tRNA moves to the E-site and exits. The tRNA that was located at the A site is now at the P-site and a new tRNA comes in with a new amino acid until it no longer needs to code and the subunits disassembles and the chain is released.


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