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risk factors for breast cancer
breast cancer cells
breast cancers
breast cancer
cancer stage
long periods of time
Common Personal And Genetic Risk Factors For Breast Cancer
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Much evidence supports the idea that tumors take a lot of time, often decades, to progress into being visible. Tumors are also a series of increasingly neoplastic phenotypes, in which progression is driven by mutations. The current understanding of tumor progression in humans shows that cancer cells acquire their malignancy through the accumulation of beneficial gene alterations over these long periods of time.

There are typically five stages of breast cancer. Stage 0 of breast cancer is known as Carcinoma in situ. Stage 2 is when the tumor is less than or equal to 2 centimeters. Stage IIA breast cancer is when there is no evidence of a primary tumor, metastases is movable to the ipsilateral nodes and is anywhere from less than or equal to 2 centimeters to 5 centimeters. Stage IIB breast cancer is when tumor is between 2 and 5 centimeters when the metastases to movable to the ipsilateral nodes. Stage IIIA breast cancer is when there is no evidence of a primary tumor, metastases is fixed to ipsilateral nodes. Stage IIIB breast cancer is when tumor extends to chest wall, there is any sort of nodal involvement, no distant metastases. Stage four breast cancer is when there is any primary tumor involvement, any nodal involvement, and there is now distant metastases.

Distinctive genes modifications have also been linked to certain stages of breast cancers and also certain gene modifications are known to cause breast cancer. Down regulation of loss of certain genes such as the BRCA1 gene and the BRCA2 gene have been proven to cause breast cancer.

Several mutated genes have been found to be associated with certain distinctive stages of breast cancer. A study published in the nature the international weekly journal for science found that the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR7, are abnormally expressed in most breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumors cell and breast cancer metastases. The study also stated that these receptors respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1and CCL21/6Ckine show elevated levels of expression in organs that are the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In most breast cancer cells, signaling through CXCR4 or CCR7 subsequently induces invasive and chemotactic responses in cancer cells.

A study published in the International Journal of Biological Sciences has proven that two common proteins are also up-regulated in all stages breast cancer. Calreticulin and tropomyosin alpha 3 chain are the two common proteins that are up-regulated in most breast cancer patients. The study stated that both of these two protein could play a crucial role in determining the stage and malignancy of the breast cancer and still needs to be further analyzed. Another protein that has been shown to be up regulated in the early stages of breast cancer as well as cancers who tumors are fairly large is HSP 70.

Another study which was published by University of Bonn Medical Center, Germany has found that chromosome 15 harbors a novel putative tumor suppressor gene which appears to play a role during later stages of carcinogenesis and which may be associated with metastasis in breast cancer.


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