Impurities Of Water
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Impurities Of Water

Pure water means that water which does not contain any substance likely to endanger the health of its consumers. Montessori Training has suggested two types of impurities in water :

a) Chemical: Dissolved impurities like gases; salts such as calcium, magnesium sulphates, etc

b) Bacterial: These may include organisms, causing typhoid, cholera, dysentery and severe form of jaundice.

Sources of Impurities

Water may receive impurities as much from the soil through which it flows from the atmosphere through which it falls down rain. Many times leakage in the distribution pipes might also pollute the water.

Hardness and Softness OF Water

The most important dissolved impurities in water from the laundering point of view are compounds of calcium and magnesium, and in certain cases compounds of iron. The presence of these salts makes the water unsuitable for laundry and is known as hard water. The water free from the above mentioned impurities is called soft water.

Hardness Meaning:

Hardness in water is the power to kill soap. There can be no lather from soap until the hardness has been removed. When soap is added to hard water the salts of calcium and magnesium react with the soap to form insoluble lime soaps, which form a paste or deposit on the surface.

Objective:

The object in preparing water for laundry work is to remove a large amount of hardness and for this purpose one should have an idea of its nature.

Kinds:

There are two kinds of hardness in water: temporary and permanent. Te temporary hardness is so called because it can be removed by boiling the waste. Permanent hardness is due mainly to sulphate of calcium and magnesium and, to a lesser degree to other compounds of calcium and magnesium. Both kinds of hardness can be removed from water y chemical treatment known as water softening.

Removal of hardness:

Most water, contain both temporary and permanent hardness and the efforts should be made to remove all the hardness without leaving the water alkaline. The housewife may use washing soda to remove hardness. For large scale softening lime and soda may be used.

a) Borax: Borax is left in the water does not harm fabrics but it is useful only for softening water containing very little hardness.

b) Ammonia: Ammonia in solution also acts as a softening agent. However, used in excess it will damage the luster of rayon discolor and injure animal fabrics and loosen the dyes of coloured articles.

c) Soap: Soap may also be used as a softening agent but it must be remembered that it is an extravagant practice on account of the high cost of soap compared with washing soda.

Removal of permanent hardness:

Sodium carbonate or washing soda removes both temporary and permanent hardness. It is inexpensive and easy to use; so this makes it the ideal substance for softening water in the home. However Pre-Primary Teacher Training has advised that, care must be taken in the usage of correct amount of the chemical. The soda should be added to the water, allowed to dissolve and to interact with the hardness; then sufficient soap should be added to form lather.


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