Motor Development
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Motor Development

It is the development of control over bodily movements through the co-ordinate activity of the nerve centre, the nerves and the muscles. Two basic trends describe the child’s motor

development, especially during the first few years. The development moves from the head downward (cephalocaudal) and from the trunk outward (proximodistal).

The baby starts grasping things with the fingers pressed, against the palms, the thumbs isn’t used much at all. The next step is the thumb used in opposition to the four fingers, and

finally the child is able to use the thumb against just one other finger at about the age of 18-24months.

Rolling over is usually a baby’s first maneuver with his whole body, and it cannot be achieved until he has gained considerable control over his head, torso, and legs. To roll from front

to back, the baby raises his head and one shoulder, arches his back, and twists, giving a shove with his age, and over he goes. This is usually mastered well before the age of 20 weeks.

About 4 weeks later, they usually learn to roll from back to front as well. Rolling over eventually leads to such complex maneuvers as pulling up into a standing position.

As with rolling over a child must gain strength, in his neck and back control over his head before he can sit up. He can usually raise his head very slightly when prone. As he practices

raising his head, his neck and shoulder muscles strengthen, eventually he is able to get his head and chest well off the ground and can hold his head erect when picked up. When the

baby gains enough control over the upper part of his body sitting up follows naturally. Many babies can sit up with support by about 16 to 18 weeks and can sit up by themselves by

about 28 weeks. By 40 weeks can sit up straight and steadily for longer period of time.

At one year the child walks forward if someone holds one of his hands. By 13 months the child has become capable of walking without help. At 18 months he can go up and down

stairs without assistance and by two he runs, walks backward, and picks up without overbalancing.

Activities and Experience for promoting Motor Development by Teacher Training Courses

Adults assume three different postures related to children’s motor development. Some simply leave this component of children’s behavior to chance, perhaps because they believe

children thrive best who engage in motor activities as they please- or perhaps because they are ignorant of the part it plays in development. Others merely believe in setting the stage;

that is, they provide facilities for play and then leave children to their own devices. Still others favor actively arranging for motor development by encouraging some activities.

A good programmed must be carefully planned. It must respect each child’s level of maturation and recognize that motor development should not be left to chance. Severe restriction

of activity lessens both psychological and psychological tonus. Home, School and Community must make available suitable places and equipment for play. For uninhibited activity, there

should be swings, slides or places to run. For finer coordination, plus social and cognitive development there should be families of dolls or play animals, blackboards and chalk or

construction sets. Both facilities and programmed should be adapted to the child’s stage of development. The time that a child’s muscle growth is greatest should be time of greatest

activity.


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