Plumbing And Water Purification Steps
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Plumbing And Water Purification Steps

What specific methods of purifying the water?

The water that is distributed in cities and communities is treated extensively. There are specific purification steps so that the water meets the standards.

These fall purification methods in three groups, the deposition of suspended solids, the chemical treatment of colloids and biological treatments. All these treatment methods have several different applications.

What are the operating principles of these methods?

- Physical Water Treatment

The physical water treatment essentially concerns filtration techniques. The filtration serves to remove solids from liquids. There are various filtration techniques. A typical filtering system consists of a tank, the filter itself and of a control system to enable the discharge.

- Screens

Filtration screens is usually done at the beginning of the water purification process. The shape of the screens depends on the particles that must be removed.

- Sand Filtration

The sand filtration is a frequently used, very robust method to remove water suspended solids. The filter consists of several sized layers of sand and of different density. When water passes through the filter, the suspended material precipitates in the layers of sand and water, which contains less suspended matter flows out of the filter. When the filters are loaded particle is reverse the direction of flow in order to regenerate it. Small particles pass through the sand filter, therefore a second filtration is generally required.

- Membrane Filtration

Flow filtration across a membrane eliminates both the suspended solids and dissolved organic matter, this using a permeable membrane. The concentrate flows along the membrane and out of the system and the remaining solution is removed by flowing across the membrane.

There are various membrane filtration techniques: micro-filtration, ultra filtration, nano-filtration and reverse osmosis. Technique to use depends on the type of compound to be removed and the particle size.

1) Micro-filtration

Micro-filtration is a membrane separation technique in which fine particles or other suspended solids, whose particle size is between 0.1 and 1.5 microns, are separated from a liquid. It can remove the suspended matter, bacteria or other impurities. The nominal pore size micro-filtration membrane is 0.2 microns.

2) Ultra - filtration

Ultra filtration is a membrane separation technique in which fine particles or other suspended solids, whose particle size is between 0.005 and 0.1 microns, are separated from the liquid. It can remove the salts, proteins and other impurities. Ultra filtration membranes have a nominal pore size of 0.0025 to 0.1 microns.

3) Nano filtration

Nano filtration is a membrane separation technique in which fine particles or other suspended solids, whose particle size is between approximately 0.0001 and 0.005 microns, are separated from a liquid. It eliminates viruses, pesticides and herbicides.

4) Reverse osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis, or RO, is the technique of membrane separation finest available. RO separates the fine particles or other suspended matter, particle sizes up to 0.001 microns. It can remove metal ions and fully removing aqueous salts.

More about the reverse osmosis and osmotic pressure

Filtration by cartridge:

Cartridge by filtration units consist of fibers. These are the most effective and economical installations where the level of contamination does not exceed 100 ppm. When the level of pollution is more important these facilities are used in the end finishing process.

2 chemical water treatment:

The chemical treatment of the water concerns many methods. The method to use expense of such contamination. Here is a summary of several of these methods.

Addition of a chemical

There are various situations in which chemicals are added, for example to prevent the formation of certain reaction products. Examples:

- Addition of (method of removing certain heavy metals from the bloodstream) agents to prevent negative effects of hardness, caused by deposition of calcium and magnesium.

- Addition of oxidants, as (chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means), or to neutralize reducing agents.

- Addition of reducing to neutralize (type of chemical which a fuel requires to burn. Most types of burning on Earth use oxygen) such as ozone and chlorine. They also help prevent the degradation of purification membranes.


Clarification is a multi-step process to remove suspended matter. First added coagulants that reduce the charge of the ions. So they can accumulate into larger particles called floc. That floc then settle by gravity to the tank bottom or are eliminated by passing the water through a filter. Particles larger than 25 microns are effectively removed by clarification. A clarified water may still contain suspended solids and therefore needs further treatment.

The removal of ions from a solution using an ion exchange process and softening

The removal of ions from a solution using an ion exchange process is generally carried out by ion exchange. Ion exchange systems consist of a tank filled with synthetic resin beds, which have been treated to selectively absorb certain cations or anions and replace them with ions against. The ion exchange process continues until all the available spaces are filled with ions. When this is the case, the unit to be regenerated with appropriate chemicals.

One of the most commonly used ion exchangers is the softener. This device removes calcium and magnesium ions from hard water, by replacing them with other negatively charged ions, such as sodium.


Disinfection is one of the most important steps in the purification of water from cities and communities. Its objective is to kill unwanted microorganisms in water is why disinfectants are often referred to as bio - Cides name. There are several techniques available to disinfect fluids and surfaces, such as: ozone disinfection, chlorine disinfection and UV disinfection.

Ozone is used for disinfection of drinking water in municipal water production plants in Europe for over years and is now used by many water companies, where generator capacity Ozone hundred kilograms per hour are common. When ozone encounters odors, bacteria or viruses, one of the oxygen atoms by oxidation reacts with and destroys them. During this process this oxygen is destroyed and there is no odor, bacteria or ozone (which is converted to oxygen). Ozone is not only an effective disinfectant, but also a risk-free disinfectant to use.

Nowadays it also uses the Ultra Violet radiation for disinfection. When exposed to sunlight, germs are killed and bacteria and fungi can no longer multiply. This natural disinfection process can be used more efficiently by controlling exposure to UV radiation.


Distillation involves recover the steam after boiling wastewater. With a properly designed system, the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and biological impurities can be obtained, this because most pollutants do not vaporize. The water thus passes into the condensate and the pollutants remain in the evaporation system.

Electro dialysis

The electro dialysis is a technique that uses electrical current specific and special membranes, which are semi-permeable ions, according to their charge. The membranes letting the anions and cations letting those are placed alternately, these membranes are placed between two electrodes. The electrodes attract the opposite charged ions through the membranes, so that these are removed from the water.

pH adjustment

The pH of the municipal water is often adjusted to prevent corrosion of pipes and the dissolution of lead from the water supply system. The pH is lowered by addition of hydrochloric acid, in the case of a basic liquid, or increased by adding sodium hydroxide, in the case of an acidic liquid. It is sought to achieve a pH of approximately 7 - 7.5, after addition of these substances.


Most natural organic products have a slightly negative charge. Organic scanning is done by adding dune strongly basic anionic resin. The organics are fixed to the resin and when loaded it is regenerated with high concentrations of sodium chloride.

3 Biological water treatment

Biological water treatment is performed to lower the organic load of dissolved product. Micro-organisms, mainly the bacteria, these compounds decompose. There are two main categories of biological treatment: aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment.

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) load defines the organic product. In aerobic systems the water is aerated with compressed air (in some cases merely oxygen), whereas in anaerobic systems operate in an oxygen-free environment.

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as the process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light,the physical water treatment is done in the societe Plombier Paris 11 .

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