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Organizational Contingency Model
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Vroom and Jago (2007) abstract states, “leadership depends on the situation.” But professed leaders must first define leadership for themselves, with strong consideration to individual values, inspiration, and motivating factors. Virtually every definition affirms without argument, that leadership involves the process of influence. Although there’s no standard definition, leadership is a role which requires individual competence, knowledge, and understanding of application style; e.g. available approaches.

Proper leadership preparation enables examination of “role situational factors in leadership” (Vroom, & Jago, 2007). This examination helps organizations discern the decision making process, by which is significantly influenced by presenting incidental situations. However, identified by vroom, the “myriad” (2007) of leadership definitions require a definitive solution of association. Therefore, leadership through his contingency model is; a process by, which people are inspired, and engage in teamwork.

By teamwork a collaborative approach ascertains agency goals and objectives. This approach reflects a humanistic response of those in charge; which views employees as person (s); rather than “property” (Vroom, & Jago, 2007). Decision styles of this model are based on two categories; either relationship driven, or task oriented (Daft, p. 68-69, 2008). Relationship leadership style favors the human relation approach, and in all instances have a pre-existing rapport with subordinates.

Naturally an effective leader with insight of team members will without doubt lead from an individualized approach. As opposed to the more rigid, and task oriented approach. Task oriented leaders base decisional responses on presented situations; e.g. specific team associations. For example, a team of medical doctors would thoroughly diagnose a patients presenting symptoms before determining ailment; e.g. feasible medical interventions of correction.

This process is uniquely similar to steps a leader would take in any organization. It is an opportunity to process organizational potential threats elimination. Therefore, task-oriented leader’s decision style primary focus is productivity, and achieving desired results. For instance, a company with high debt would need to improve revenue. The focus would definitely be task-oriented, but appropriate due to the specific situation.

Relationship oriented leaders are typically concerned with the needs of their staff, along side maturity; however, their focus remains attainment of institution objectives. Hersey and Blanchard’s (1972) situational theory focus on the characteristics of followers, which correlates with the joining of values of agency, leadership, and individual members (Daft, p. 73, 2007). Vroom-Jago contingency model identifies (7) leader participation styles, decide, consult individually, consult group, facilitate, and delegate. The decide style assumes the “great man” concept, but using area of expertise; e.g. knowledge along with valid and credible research.

In simple terms, we in team are ignored and one person makes a definitive decision. Whereas consult team members individually, allow input with consideration of suggestions made. Consult group collectively brings everyone together for a round table discussion; the lines of communication are open to receive input; along with provide feedback; e.g. constructive criticism prior to making a definite decision.

Facilitate style is more of a navigator approach.

The problem is laid out for all parties of interest, but the production personnel are responsible for his or her decision of addressing presented issue. Leaders who use this style are usually hands-off. Finally, the delegate style, this approach affirms both personal and member autonomy. The approach is more empowering, and it promotes organizational cohesion with respect to diversity.

Organizational decision making is a daily task, and often time challenge for leaders. Some are concerned with appeasing subordinates; whereas, others focus on achieving daily functioning as outlined in policies and procedures. While the structural design governs approaches of leaders, it does not take into consideration unforeseen functioning obstacles associated with this role. Therefore, in determining which style to use, I first conduct a personal inventory; as to review what’s most important to me. Being pro-relationship oriented, I would use an integrative approach.

Realistically, all decisions cannot relinquish freedom for all group members; as some are necessary to be leader directed. Fielder (1967) contingency model focus on leader traits and situational variables, as decisions respond to organizational conflict. Vroom, yetton, and Jago (1978), all addressed the correlation of decision responses according to “configurations or combinations of situational dimensions” (Jago, 1978). While no approach is problematic resistant, leaders must through effective diagnostic testing make decisions based on situational presentations.

As understood, the particular situation of an agency, should determine the response of positioned leaders. Decisions are never one size fits all; furthermore, the organizational environment itself requires a diplomatic approach. Therefore, even the (7) situational factors carry impact, regardless of good or bad, there will be an interpersonal; e.g. productivity shift. In the area of influence and freedom for groups, the impacts can have negative and positive outcomes.

Questions for consideration range from problem quality requirement, sufficient information for cognitive decision making, problem structured, and acceptance of subordinates of decision affect attainment of objectives, and independent decision making appease of all parties. More importantly, will subordinates continue to resist organizational restructuring, thus creating conflict among subordinates (Field, 1979). While many strongly believe in the contingency model, researcher Field of the University of Toronto does not. In fact, he concedes, that while the contingency model may be effective in some aspects of minimal leader behavior, it is not parsimonious as alternative models (Field, 1979).

Decision making is the process of using logic to address potential; e.g. existing problems within an organization. Therefore, heavily contemplating an appropriate course of action require certain tools in order to be effective. Decision making is one of many skills by which a process is necessary to govern the steps of action. In preparation of making the decision within an outpatient treatment modality I would use SWOT, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Identifying the problem or potential problems within an organization requires knowledge; e.g. insight of agency core strengths, feasible and available resources, and established partnerships. Being aware of resource inadequacy, stagnation, lack of agency expertise; e.g. limited staffing to achieve outlined objectives. What adjustments can be made within the organization to eradicate the problem, needed resources, additional staff members, understanding of the authentic problem, and utilizing existing partnerships and opportunities to collaborate with other agencies? Prior to making the final analysis; e.g. diagnosis, internal and external organization threats will be identified, damage control team will be formed with competent personnel, and the team would collectively make an affirm decision.


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