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sodium potassium
sodium intake
sodium chloride
body metabolism
low sodium
body cells
loss of appetite
Minerals The Inorganic Substances
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Minerals the Inorganic Substances

Elements for example sodium, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium are required by the body. In the body minerals i.e., inorganic substances play an important role. There are trace elements also that are required by the body. Manganese, cobalt, zinc and copper are the elements that are required in less amount for the body are termed as trace elements.


Sodium is a cation. It has positive charge on it. The symbol of sodium is Na. One of the best sources of sodium is common salt. Its chemical name is sodium chloride. It daily requirement may be 5-10 gms. During summer and excessive sweating the daily requirement may increase to higher levels. Our requirements of sodium is enough from the foods we take. During emergency conditions it will be supplied to the body as saline in parenteral form.

Sodium performs different functions in the body. Some of the functions are 1. Sodium plays an important role in fluid balance maintenance. 2. Regulation of pressure through osmosis in the body. 3. Maintenance of acid-base balance. 4. In the muscle activity and irritability.

Sodium deficiency is common during excessive sweating, diarrhoea and dysentery, nausea and vomiting, poor intake of Sodium. Deficiency of Sodium is termed as hyponatraemia. It causes extra cellular fluid decrease and also plasma volume in the body. During this condition lethargy, cramps and loss of appetite occurs.

Sodium excess is termed as hypernatraemia. This condition mainly occurs due to excessive Sodium intake. This may result in oedema in chronic conditions. Sodium retention in the body may take place due to various conditions. So one has to decrease of Sodium intake. In blood pressure or hypertension low Sodium intake is essential. It regulates blood pressure.

So, Sodium plays an important role in human body metabolism. It regulates various functions of the body. The common salt that we take is chemically known as Sodium Chloride. In the language of chemistry its formula is Na Cl.


In the body cells it is an important component. Potassium is present inside the cell. (Sodium is present outside the cell.). It is excreted during the body in certain conditions. This results in the deficiency of this element.

Potassium maintains excitability of neuro-muscular nature. Potassium maintains acid-base balance.

Vegetables, fruits and cereals are good sources of Potassium. Fruit juices and soups are all good sources of Potassium.

Hypokalaemia is a condition of Potassium. Less intake, diarrhoea and dysentery, nausea and vomiting and other conditions result less Potassium in the body. Deficiency results in lethargy, muscle weakness etc., Severe deficiency results in paralysis.

Potassium excess is known as Hyperkalaemia. This may be due to diseased conditions or excess intake. By taking proper measures this condition my be rectified.

Like Sodium the element Potassium also plays an important role in the body. Its chemical compound name is known as Potassium chloride. The chemical formula is K Cl.

The common elements Sodium and Potassium decide the good health of humans that take care of our body. If you take care of the elements the elements will be ready to take care of you.

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