A Simple Guide To The Alcohol Making Process
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Ethanol is an alcohol which is commercially produced by the use of a process called fermentation. Most alcohol can be produced in this way, but it's most likely that they be produced by use of synthetic routes - from oil, natural gas, or coal.

Google dictionary defines fermentation as the process in which sugars are converted into ethyl alcohol in the making of liquor, beer or wine.

How Fermentation Works.

Through fermentation, the yeast breaks down the sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Let us define yeast- Yeast are very tiny single celled fungi that do contain special enzymes that are responsible for the reaction.Below is an illustrated word equation for the process.

Glucose + yeast =alcohol + carbon dioxide

Gas bubbles of carbon come out of the fermenting solution into the surrounding air or stored for other purposes thus leaving a mixture of water and ethanol. Its very important that no air is present in the reaction or the yeast will end up producing ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid is the chemical that is found in vinegar.

Lagers and Beer.

Barley, which is a member of the grass family, is a very major ingredient in the production of beers and lagers. Hops, water, barley and live yeast are ingredients used to produce lagers and beers. The sugar contained in the mix comes from the sprouting barley. Bitter, ale and stout beers use top-fermenting yeast, while the lager uses a variety that usually sinks to the bottom.

Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is made from fermented grapes or other types of fruits. Due to the natural chemical balance, the grapes ferment without the addition of acids,sugars, water or enzymes. In the winemaking process, the sugars used come from the flesh of the crushed grapes. The type of grape used to make the wine determines the type of wine that is produced depends.

Spirits and distillation

Spirits are strongly distilled liquors such as whiskey,brandy,rum or gins.

Yeast cannot be able to survive in high levels of alcohol, so in order to create spirits that are stronger an additional process, distillation, is used. After the fermented drinks are made, they are distilled to create rum, vodka, and other spirits. The distillation process relies on the ethanol having a lower boiling point than water. Thus when the fermented drink is heated water is left behind and the ethanol evaporates at 78 degrees a (water boils and starts to evaporate at 100 degrees). The ethanol gas produced is trapped and cooled so that it condenses to produce a stronger concentration of ethanol liquid.

The other uses of fermentation include:

Bread making also uses the fermentation process, the yeast used is mixed with the dough prepared and kept warm. Carbon dioxide produced by the fermentation process makes the alcohol evaporate and the bread dough rise.

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